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Black Timberlands Uk paper an ant colony system ACS
In this paper an ant colony system (ACS) with communication strategies is Black Timberlands Uk developed. The artificial ants are partitioned into several groups. Seven communication methods for updating the pheromone level between groups Timberland Outlet Uk Sale in ACS are proposed and work on the traveling salesman problem using our system is presented. Experimental results based on three well-known traveling salesman data sets demonstrate the proposed ACS with communication strategies are superior to the existing ant colony system (ACS) and ant system (AS) with similar or better running times. The foreign aid, domestic saving, and economic growth relationships are investigated for a panel of African countries over the period 1965–2000. The departure from earlier studies of the role of foreign aid on economic growth is in the asymptotic theory of likelihood-based panel cointegration allowing for multiple cointegrating vectors. The results reveal that the variables contain a panel unit root and they cointegrate in a panel perspective. The findings show that foreign aid and domestic saving enhance economic growth for all countries in the sample.